Thursday, 22 January 2015

การใช้ Verbs To Like / Verbo Gustar / คำกริยา ชอบ ภาษาสเปน

Verbs Like / Verbo Gustar / ชอบ

Me gusta el cuarto.
I like the room.
Nos gustan los libros.
We like the books.
In English, the following sentences are correct:
I like the room.
We like the books.
Examine the same sentences more closely.
I like the room.
I = subject of sentence
like = verb
the room = direct object
We like the books.
We = subject of sentence
like = verb
the books = direct object
In English, it is correct to construct a sentence that has the subject "liking" a direct object. In Spanish, this never occurs. In Spanish, a different construction is used.
English: I like the room.
Spanish: The room is pleasing to me.
English: We like the books.
Spanish: The books are pleasing to us.

Since the subject of the sentence must be either singular (book) or plural (books), the only forms of gustar you will use are "gusta" and "gustan." This is true regardless of what IO pronoun appears in the sentence.
Me gusta el libro.
I like the book.
Te gusta el libro.
You like the book.
Nos gusta el libro.
We like the book.
Me gustan los libros.
I like the books.
Te gustan los libros.
You like the books.
Nos gustan los libros.
We like the books.
Remember, gustar becomes either gusta or gustan, depending upon whether the subject of the sentence is singular or plural. It has nothing to do with which IO pronoun is used.
Subject is singular - use gusta
Me gusta el libro.
Te gusta el libro.
Subject is plural - use gustan
Me gustan los libros.
Te gustan los libros.
Remember, the IO pronoun is not the subject of the sentence!
Nos gustamos ... incorrect!
Te gustas ... incorrect!
Here are some examples of the correct use of gustar. Notice that the only forms of gustar that appear are gusta and gustan, even though each of the IO pronouns is used.
Singular Subject Plural Subject
Me gusta la casa. Me gustan las casas.
Te gusta el cuarto. Te gustan los cuartos.
Le gusta la silla. Le gustan las sillas.
Nos gusta el hotel. Nos gustan los hoteles.
Os gusta la comida. Os gustan las comidas.
Les gusta el reloj. Les gustan los relojes.

Look more closely at one example:
Le gusta la silla.
It is impossible to tell whether this means:
  1. He likes the chair.
  2. She likes the chair.
  3. You (usted) like the chair.
For purposes of clarification, the sentence will often begin with a prepositional phrase that clarifies just who the IO pronoun refers to.
A él le gusta la silla.
He likes the chair.
A Juan le gusta la silla.
John likes the chair.
A ella le gusta la silla.
She likes the chair.
A María le gusta la silla.
Mary likes the chair.
A usted le gusta la silla.
You (formal) like the chair.
As you can see, by adding a prepositional phrase, we remove the ambiguity of the "le" form.

You can also use a prepositional phrase to add emphasis, even if there is no ambiguity.
1. A Juan le gusta el café.
John likes coffee.
2. A mí me gusta el té.
I like tea.
In the first example, "a Juan" clarifies the ambiguous pronoun "le." In the second example, there is no ambiguity. "Me gusta el té" can only mean "I like tea." In this case, "a mí" adds emphasis, drawing attention to the fact that tea is what I like (as contrasted with what Juan likes).

Another way to look at it:
John likes coffee. Me, I like tea.
A Juan le gusta el café. A mí me gusta el té.